Frontex has its own Research and Innovation Unit, which frequently cooperates with academic and research institutions. It also outsources research. The March 2021 report on the use of artificial intelligence for border and coast guard applications, for example, was written by RAND Europe.
Frontex is also involved in many research and development projects on border security and control which are funded under overarching 7-year EU funding programmes, such as the current Horizon Europe programme (2021-2027). According to Frontex this includes its “active participation in selected activities, such as tests, trials and demonstrations of technologies”. The projects are run by consortia of companies, academic and research institutions and national authorities.